Are plastic pots used in home gardening cancer causing?

It has been touted that home gardening carries substantial economic and social benefits. Realizing the popularity of home gardening, plastic pots in many flavours at different scales have been introduced to the society to support home gardening. Oftentimes, these plastic pots have been used to vegetate plants that are consumed by the society directly or indirectly. However, it is little known on the probability of having cancer causing chemicals from these plastic pots leaching into the vegetation through the soil matrix and the roots, and ultimately into the society that consumes the outcome of vegetation. Moreover, the respiration of these vegetations in plastic plots, which contains leached chemicals from the plastic pots, may dilute the composition of the air mass in the surrounding environment. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate these issues at a precursory level.



The impact evaluation of e-mail based courses on GDP of a nation

With the ever increasing population and the associated urbanization, the probability of having the residence of an employee of a company distanced from the work place is on the rise. This undesirable happening, yet unavoidable, has caused enormous burden and cumbersome to employers and employees around the world. Knowingly or unknowingly, employees lose their productive time in commuting to their work places. The ongoing research conducted at Abzwater.com shows that on an average, employees from developing nations lose almost 4 hours per day on their two-way commute to their work places. On the other hand, surprisingly, although it is not concrete, evidences are fast emerging to support that the developed nations attribute more loss of productive time in commute to workplaces. Consequences to the loss of productive time of employees, the employers are forced to use production possibilities curves that are not at the best. These interlinked happenings between employers and employees may force the GDPs of nations around the world to decline unnoticeably. Having said this, the current level of technological development is at a scale that could be coupled to address the said issues for the betterment of nations around the world. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate whether e-mail based courses that are developed to enhance the skill sets and capacities of employees during the commute time to their work places will enhance the GDPs of nations around the world.



A cost-effective perfumed chemical compound to save water used to flush toilets after urinations in summer seasons

The limited amount of available water has poised for many challenges for those who thrive to achieve sustainable development. The ever increasing population, associated urbanisation, and plausible climate change scenarios raise the challenges faced with the limited amount of available water to a new dimension. The water that is used to flush toilets after urinations is one of the prominent challenges faced with the limited amount of available water, specifically in developing nations. Considering the standard capacities of cistern tanks fixed in toilet systems, it is estimated that approximately 6 to 17 litres of water are used in flushing a toilet after urination. The ongoing research findings at Abzwater.com show that in many developing nations that are cursed with the worst climate change scenarios, with too frequent urinations, the amount of water required during the summer seasons to flush after urinations is on the rise and at an alarming rate. Moreover, in some of the developing nations, the water that is used to flush a toilet after urination comes with an electricity cost, in addition to the cost associated with the per unit use of water use. In these nations, with step-wise per use water pricing formula, the additional water usages are also charged at a higher rate based the opportunity cost associated in depriving the appropriation of water for other purposes. Therefore, there is a need to research on these issues to reduce the water use in flushing toilets after urinations from the supplier’s perspective, and the cost associated with the water use from the consumer’s perspective. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of introducing a cost-effective chemical compound to avoid flushing the toilet system after urinations in summer seasons.


An innovative engineering design to save toilet water that is used to flush human excreta(i.e., urine and feces)

Water closets found in toilet rooms are intended to flush human excreta(i.e., urine and feces) using water to an exterior pipe system. Arguably, the designs of these water closets, in other words, the way they operate, were conceived and developed when the awareness of the amount of water available for appropriation, and the concept of sustainable development were at an incipient or an undeveloped state. With the current design of water closets, in using water to flush, equal weights are assigned to urine and feces, although the harmness of urine and feces, and the perceptions of these components of human excreta by the society differ. In other words, the current design of water closets does not distinguish urine and feces. However, with the challenges faced with limited available water under many controlling factors such as impending climate scenarios, specifically in developing nations, the current designs of water closets need to be reassessed in the ambience of sustainable development. Thus, the objective of this research is to introduce a new design that considers urine and feces as two distinguishable components to save toilet water used in flushing water outlets.



The correlation between the bitterness of a bitter guard and the number of seeds found within the bitter guard

Bitter guard which comes in many shapes and lengths is widely homegrown in many Asian and African countries to support the livelihood. The current literature shows that bitter guard which has a medical value has an approximate calorie value of 20kcal per 100grams. The research findings also document that bitterness of a bitter guard increases with age, although evidences are emerging to support that bitterness decreases with age in some varieties. However, to date, the correlation between the bitterness of a bitter guard and the number of seeds found within the bitter guard is unknown. Therefore, the prime objective of this research is to address the unanswered, yet valuable, researchable questions surrounding the bitterness of a bitter guard and the seeds found within the bitter guard to understand the contributions of seeds in defining the bitterness of a bitter guard.